Treatment in Meningitis

Meningitis Causes & Treatment

Meningitis is a disease that causes inflammation of the membranes covering the spinal cord and brain. There are two types of meningitis such as Bacterial meningitis and Non-bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is also known as purulent meningitis and non-bacterial meningitis is known as aseptic meningitis.

Some types of bacterial meningitis spread from one person to another person. The bacteria are transmitting through the throat secretions such as kissing, coughing and the exchange of respiratory. It is commonly found in children. There are various types of meningitis include:

  • Meningitis- H.influenza
  • Meningitis – pneumococcal
  • Meningitis – tuberculous
  • Meningitis – cryptococcal
  • Meningitis – staphylococcal
  • Carcinomatous meningitis
  • Syphilitic aseptic meningitis
  • Aseptic meningitis

Causes

A viral infection is the main cause of the meningitis. It is also associated by chemical irritation, tumors, fungi and drug allergies. Bacterial meningitis is a serious health disease and may result in brain damage or death. It can be caused by Haemophilus influenzae, listeria, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitides and other kinds of bacteria.

Viral meningitis is usually developed in babies and adults whose ages are not more than thirty. It is found in 70% of babies under the age of 5. In most cases viral meningitis is developed with enteroviruses, and these viruses are also caused intestinal diseases.

It is less severe than bacterial meningitis. Viral meningitis may resolve untreated, while bacterial meningitis may result in hearing loss, disability and brain damage. Recently, viral meningitis is caused by West Nile virus. This virus has spread by mosquito bites and may cause polio- like syndrome in some patients and encephalitis in others.

Signs and symptoms

  • Headache
  • Stiff neck
  • Changes in mental status
  • High fever
  • Stiffness of the body
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Photophobia
  • Weak suck
  • Fast breath rate
  • jaundice
  • Agitation
  • Irritation or poor feeding in babies
  • Skin rashes
  • Difficulty in consciousness

Diagnosis>

It can be very difficult to determine the signs and symptoms of any types of meningitis. Although, many signs and tests will be preformed by the health care providers to diagnose the disease. Chest X-ray and Lumbar puncture with CSF cell count and CSF glucose measurement will be suggested by the doctor. In some cases Head CT scan and culture of CSF and Gram-stain are done by the doctor to determine the symptoms such as deep swelling, hydrocephalus or abscess of the meningitis.

Treatment

Antibiotics are very effective to treat the bacterial meningitis. But these are not good for viral meningitis. Sometimes, intravenous fluids and medications will be required to reduce the symptoms such as shock, seizures and brain swelling. In case of severe illness, hospitalization will be needed to treat the disease.

There are highly effective and safe vaccines available against Hib. These vaccines are helpful to prevent the forms of meningitis.

Complications of meningitis

  • Loss of vision
  • Deafness or hearing loss
  • Brain damage
  • Hydrocephalus

When to call the health care provider

If baby has symptoms and signs of meningitis, consult the health care providers immediately.

Prevention

Haemophilus vaccine is very effective to prevent the meningitis. This vaccine will be suggested people who are visiting to other countries, where meningitis is the most common. In most cases, routine immunization will be useful to prevent the disease.